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Fraction rules

Multiplying and Dividing Fractions:

Common denominators are NOT needed.

Always change mixed numbers to improper fractions.

CANCEL (reduce) between any numerator and any denominator
if you can, but cancel only when a multiplication sign is
present: Never cancel when you have a division sign.

TO MULTIPLY: Multiply numerator times numerator,
denominator times denominator. Reduce answer to a mixed
number in lowest terms.

TO DIVIDE: Change the divide sign to a multiplication
sign, then invert the second fraction and multiply as in
Step 4.

Adding and Subtracting Fractions:

Common (like) denominators are necessary, so change all
unlike fractions to equivalent fractions with like
denominators. To make equivalent fractions, multiply the
numerator and denominator by the same number.

Keep mixed numbers; DO NOT change mixed numbers into
improper fractions.

Add (or subtract) the numerators, put the numerator
answer over the common denominator. If any improper
fractions arise in the answer, change the improper
portion to a mixed number.